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Even within anthropology, the term “indigenous” can have a variety of meanings. When we say that the human species is indigenous to Africa (because that is where the species evolved), or that fishing peoples in Indonesia have indigenous fishing skills or knowledge, or that the people of Japan are indigenous to their country, we mean a variety of things.
The concept of “indigenous peoples” is even more complicated. That concept, which was once accepted as an object of anthropological study, became the subject of heated debate in the first decade of the twenty-first century. The traditional concept of “indigenous peoples” refers to relatively isolated, small-scale, often hunting-and-gathering groups that wish to maintain an identity distinct from that of surrounding, dominant populations. Almost all hunter-gatherers, as well as native populations from South America, North America, and the Arctic, are classic examples. Some of the difficulties in defining indigenous peoples stem from the fact that some groups or individuals have transitioned to ‘modern’ life and thus do not fit the stereotype.
If that transition entails acquiring power or wealth, or simply assimilation with a majority population, the definition of such people as indigenous may become problematic. Because the concept is frequently associated with ‘race,’ there is also the issue of how to classify individuals who are part indigenous and part non-indigenous. How many pure ‘indigenous’ grandparents are required before claiming to be ‘indigenous’? Finally, defining the essence of indigenousness is difficult at best.
There appears to be very little shared, for example, by relatively well-off Saami reindeer herders, poor and dispossessed Pygmies in Central African forests, and urban Australian Aborigines in Sydney or Brisbane. Whatever its theoretical flaws, the status of ‘indigenous people’ is frequently preferred by those with whom anthropologists share political sympathies, and it allows such people to achieve their legitimate political goals. In an ideal world, people should not be granted land rights solely because they are a “indigenous people.” Nonetheless, the International Labour Organization Convention 169 on ‘Indigenous Peoples’ states that ‘rights of ownership and possession of the peoples concerned over the lands which they have traditionally occupied shall be recognised’ (ILO 1989: article 14). The issue is that nation states do not generally recognise ownership as defined in ‘indigenous’ worldviews.
What is missing on both sides of the anthropological debate on ‘indigenous peoples’ is the potential contribution of anthropology itself in highlighting the relevance of truly indigenous concepts, such as land ownership, or even the concept of indigenously defined ‘indigenousness’ itself.
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List of Available IGNOU BANE-146 Study Materials:
|BANE-146 Anthropology of Indigenous People||Click to|
|IGNOU BANE 146 Study Material (Egyankosh)||Download|
|IGNOU BANE 146 Help Book/Guide Book||Download|
|IGNOU BANE 146 Solved Assignment||Download|
|IGNOU BANE 146 Solved Guess Paper||Download|
|IGNOU BANE 146 Previous Year Solved Question Papers||Download|
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